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鸿泰开户推荐

2020年05月30日 04:07 来源:鸿泰开户推荐

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鸿泰开户推荐,2,PresidentXiJinping’sscientificexpositionthatChina’seconomyisenteringthenewnormalwillbeadoptedasthegeneralideawhenweformulatedevelopmentstrategies,,2015isnotonlythelastyearofthe12thFive-YearPlan(2011-2015),butalsotheyearinwhichthenewFive-YearPlan(2016-2020),theyearof2015isalsoessentialinwhichasolidfoundationshouldb,averyimportantprerequisiteistocomprehendandfollowthegeneralideaof“understandingthenewnormal,adaptingtothenewnormal,andleadingthenewnormal”forChina’ndingoftheNewNormalAttheCentralEconomicWorkConferenceheldlastmonth,PresidentXiJinpinggaveasystematicexpositionoftheeconomicnewno’sdevelopmentinthefuture,itiscrucialtohaveasoberunderstandingofthechangesi,,majoreco,,,,developedeconomieshavealsocarriedouta“reindustrialization”strategy,resultinginane,oughprogressbeingmade,variouskindsofregionalcoope,andinthemeanwhileitmakesworldeconomicgovernancemorecomplicated,changeableanduncertain,whichtosomeextent,ewdDrivingForcesforEconomicGrowthFacingnewenvironments,opportunities,challengesandrequirementsintheeconomy’snewnormal,itisessentialtofullyunderstandthatdevelopmentisofle-incometrapandtomaintainChina’’swellknownthatdevelopmentisessential,,,ofcourse,isdifferentfromthetraditionalgrowthpattern,butitmuststillbeachievedataratewithquality,,,especiallyafterthereformandopening-upinthepastthreedecades,,China’spercapitaGDPwasabout$7,000,accountingforonlyone-eighthoftheUSandrepresentingalargegapbetweenthatofChile,ernandstrongcountrywithwealthypeople,Chinahastomaintainsustainable,,heindustrialrevolution,itisfoundthatthekeyfactordeterminingacountry’sdevelopmentiswhetherornotthecountry’,China’’,alleffortsforthecountry’,’slivelihood,,tomaintainastablesociety,,withregardtothetotalsupplyofanddemandforlaborforce,,asthestructureoflaborsupplyanddemandchangesinthefuture,,Chinawillhavemorethansevenmillionundergraduates,loyment,onlywhenmoderategrowthconnectedwiththepreviousgrowthmomentumismaintained,,financialsystemandbusinessoperationarelikelytobecoveredupduringhigh-speedgrowthduetotheriseofprices,,China’sfinancialriskshavealreadyaccumulatedtoacertainlevelthatcan’governmentdebtatalllevelshadamountedto30trillionyuan($)bytheendofJune2013,,assetpriceswouldshrinksubstantially,resultinginashaByLiuShijin,YuBinWuZhenyuInthefirsthalfof2014,underthejointimpactofshort-cycleadjustmentandthemediumandlong-termgrowthtransitionatpresentstage,,therestructuringandreformshadmadepreliminaryachievements,witheconomicperformanceindicatoreinternationaleconomicenvironment,anintensivemanifestationoftheeffectsofdomesticpoliciesforsmootheconomicgrowth,,theannuale,Chinawillfocusonstabilizinginvestment,pressaheadwithreformsinrelatedfields,unleashtheinherentgrowthpotentialoftheeconomy,acceleratethemitigationofrisksinindustrieswithovercapacity,localgovernmentfinancingplatformsandrealestatemarket,andplacegreateremphasisonthequalityofgrowth,soastofacili,butRegionalDisparitiesandLocalRisksHaveBecomeTangibleSincethebeginningof2014,theexpansionofdomesticandinternationaldemandshassloweddown,,theyear-on-yeargrowthratesofinvestment,consumption,,,,respectively,,whichaccountedrespectivelyfor34%and20%ofthefixed-assetinvestment,dofthepreviousyear,(industrialenterpriseswithanannualrevenueofRMB20millionyuanormorefromtheirmainbusinessoperations)%,,thequalityandbenefitsofeconomicoperationhadimproved,theindustrialandregionaldisparitieshadenlarged,,thequalityandbenefitsofeconomicoperationhadimproved,indicatingthatthemarketplayerswerestartingtomakeadjustmentandweregraduallyadaptingtothemacroenvironmentwithtransitionaleconomicgrowth,,,%yearonyear,ue;thegrowthrateofmainbusinessprofitshadincreasedprominentlycomparedwiththesecondhalfofthepreviousyear,anditwasbasicallysynchronouswiththegrowthrateoftotalprofits,indicatingthattheenhancementofcorporate,,%yearonyear,,%inJune,,theemployrviceindustryineconomy,,,,therealgrowthofbothurbanpercapitadisposableincomeandrura,thenumberofurbanresidentsdrawingtheminimumlivingallowanceshaddeclinedby5%,,,,,;,,theaddedvalueofthemanufacturingindustry,miningindustry,andelectricpower,%,%,%,,thegrowthratedifferencesbetweenthelattertwo,pharmaceutical,andautomobilesmanufacturingsectorswereshowingatrendofhigh-speedgrowth,withagrowthrateofaround13%.Thetextile,oil,andferrousmetalflatteningsectorsallmaintainedayear-on-yeargrowthrateof6%to7%,,theenterprisesinthecentralregionwerecomparativelypessimisticaboutthecurrenteconomicconditions,followedbythoseinthewesternregion,,thoserelyingonenergyandrawmaterialshadencounteredaggravateddifficultiesincorporateoperations,withincreasedeconomicdownwardpressure,andeven"regionalcollapses",esternregions;thoseprovincesandcitieswithahighproportionofhigh-endmanufacturingsectorssuchasautomobileandpharmaceuticalenjoyedrelativelystableeconomicgrowth;thoseregionsthatactivelypushedforwardindustrialtransformationandupgradingaswellasadjustmentandoptimizationofeconomicstructurehadmaintainedastablegrowthofregionaladdedvalue,corporateprofits,fiscalrevenue,,thepressureonrealeconomyhadfurthertransferredtothefinancialsystem,andthefinancialrisksrelatedtoovercapacityindustries,realestateindustry,ove10%,,,realestatedevelopersbecameinsolvent,guaranteecompanieswerequittingthemarket,andthenumberofprivatelendingriskeventswasincreasing.

ByWeiJigang,ResearchDepartmentofIndustrialEconomyofDRCResearchReportNo47,2013(Total4296),butnotyetapowerfulcountryintermsoflogisticindustryLogisticindustryhasbecomeapillarindustryofthenationaleconomyandanimportantmodernserviceindustryafteroverthirtyyear,,%%,,,,,(standardcontaineroftwentyfootequivalentunit).,amongwhichrailwaygoodsdeliveryvolume,railwaygoodsturnovervolume,porthandlingcapacityandcontainerhandlingcapacityallrankedthefirstplaceintheworld,,,,amongwhichexpresswaywas96,000kilometer;theoperationalmileageofnationalrailwayswas98,000kilometer;innerhigh-gradewaterwaywas130,000kilometerandthemileageopentotrafficwas125,000kilometerwith1,819berthsabove10,000tonsand1,980deepwaterberthsatcostalports;(LPI)oftheWorldBank,ChinarunsaheadofotherBRICScountriesorotherAsi,Chinesel,Chinalogisticexpensestook18%inGDP,,internationallogisticenterprisesbegantoenterChina,internationallogisticenterprisesincludingFedEx,DHL,TNT,saccessiontotheWTO,,foreigncompaniescanestablishtheirownd,capital,technologiesandmanagements,internationallogisticenterpriseshavebeentransferringfromJVstowhollyforeign-ownedcompanies,fromasinglebusinesstocomprehensivelogisticbusinesses,fromfocusingonce,FedExsetupanAsianPacifictransithubatBaiyunAirportinGuangzhou;UPSsetupairtransithubinHongKong,ShanghaiandShenzhen;TNTsetupminitrans-shipmenthubinShanghai,BeijingandHongKong;oonomy,productivity,infrastructure,marketization,levelofinformationanddemands,logisticindustrydevelopsfastintheeasternregionbutslowlyinthecentralandwesternregions,,thepercentagesofexpressbusinessincomeintheeastern,%,%%%,%%.Logisticcompanies,facilitiesandactivitiesmostlycentralizedinlarg,thepercentageoftotallogisticamoun%%elopment,industrylogistinandhighdemandsontechnologiessuchashomeappliance,dailychemicalindustry,tobacco,medicine,automobile,chainretailande-commercehaveastrongdemandonlogisticswhilecapital-intensiveagriculturalproductsontheupstreamofindustrychainandbulkcommoditiesincludingagriculturecapital,steel,,logisticsystemandnetworkareunderdeveloped,mostofthemarescatteredanivetransportationhubconstruction,differenttransportationmethodscannotcooperateorconnectwitheachreasonablyandefficiently;costalandinlandtrafficsystemshavenotbeencoordinatedwitheachother,andinformationbetweenvarioustransportationmethodsarenotshared,thuslea%(whilethatindevelopedcountrieshasbeenupto20%).Logisticparksandlogistichubshavebeenbuiltinsomecitiesblindlyandsomeareleftinidle;Warehousingfacilitiesarescatteredindifferentindustriesanddepartmentswithoutanefficientresourcereassignment;palletstandardsarenotunified,impedingtheconsistentperformance;strongregionalprotectionanddepartmentsegmentationaswellasissuesrelatedtoindustryandcommerce,tax,landandtransportationsdepartme,astandardsupernatompliancewithrelevantregulationsandtheylackserviceconsciousness,,,,organization,,,aviation,railwayandwaterwayallfaceprominentproblemssuchasconsumptionofresources,,irrationaltraffic,andexcessivepackagearesevere;majorpersonalsafetyandgoodsdamageincidentsduetooverloadoroverspeedoccurfrequently,causinggreatlossestocompaniesandthecountry.

ByZhangChenghui,,’sCreditGuaranteeIndustryWiththeapprovaloftheStateCouncil,China’sfirstprofessionalcreditguaranteecompany,ChinaEconomicandTechnologicalInvestmentandGuaranteeCompany(laterrenamedasChinaNationalInvestmentGuaranteeCorporation),itisstilltheonlynationalnon-bankfinancialinstitutionengagingincreditguarantee,,theShenzhenHigh-TechInvestmentCo.,Limited(formerlyknownastheShenzhenHigh-TechIndustrialInvestmentServicesCo.,Limited)wasestablished,wh,the“GuidanceforthePilotEstablishmentofSMECreditGuaranteeSystem”issuedbytheformerNationalEconomicandTradeCommission,clearlydefinedthebusinessscopeandmodelsofdifferenttypesofSMEcreditguaranteeinstitutions,anddesignedtheframeworkofSMEcreditguaranteesystem①.Inthisdesign,theoperatorofSMEcreditguaranteeisthegovernment(alongwithgovernmentaffiliatedinstitutionsandenterprises),withitscapitalmainlyfromthefiscalbudget,landuserightandrenterprisesengaginginguarante,inordertopreventrisks,regulatorycommitteeinordertosupervisethecreditguarantee,re-guaranteebusinessandinstitutionswithinitsjurisdiction(includingmutualguaranteeinstitutionsforenterprisesandcommercialguaranteeinstitutions).In2001,theformerNationalEconomicandTradeCommissionissuedthe“NoticeontheEstablishmentofNationalSMECreditGuaranteeSystem”,,thenumberandcapitalscaleofcreditguaranteeinstitutionsaregrowingunceasingly,,%.Bytheendof2013,thereare8185instituti,,,%.Atpresent,China’scre,inthedomainofcreditguaranteebusiness,despitetheever-increasingvarietyofguarantees②,,,%,thesefinanc,profitpolicy-orientedfinancialservices,intheprocessofdevelopment,financialresourceswere,governmentatalllevelsbegantointroduceprivatecapital,,itutionstookup70%ofthetotalandprivateinvestment30%,whichwasessentially“government-dominatedandnongovernment-supplemented③”.However,bytheendof2004,privatefundinghadalreadyaccountedfor50%,therewere1907state-controlledcompaniesoutofthe8590financingguaranteeinstitutionsnationwide,%%④.Thirdly,governm,localgovernmentsinallregionshaveallocatedspecialfundstocompensatefinancingguaranteecompaniesagainstrisks,,thepolicysupportsysteminvariousaspectshasbeenformedforguaranteeinstitutions,rangingfrombusinesssubsidy,incrementalbusinessincentives,capitalinjection,’,governmentallowsguaranteeagenciestochargeasmuchas50%’lendingratesaregenerallyaround7%-10%,andchargesofguaranteeagenciestoenterprisesare3%-5%(chargesofgovernment-fundedguaranteearelowerthanthoseofcommercialcompaniesby1-2percentagepoints).Becausealmostallcreditrisksareassumedwiththisrate⑤,thesu,itisdiffi,becauseofgovernment’sstrictrestraintofthebusinessscopeofguaranteecompanies,,during2011to2013,guaranteefeeonlyaccountsfor3%-4%,,%,%%,,someguaranteecompanieslosemoneyevenintheabsenceofanycompensationpayout,owingtothemeageem,theori,,coupledwiththelackofsustainabilityinthere-guaranteemechanismitself,theprovincialre-guaranteemechanismswereeithernotyetestablishedornoteffectiveaftertheestablishment.Thesurveyfindsthatthereisasignifi,enterprisesintheeastha,lar,state-ownedenterprises,state-controlledcompaniesandforeign-investedcompaniesenjoyrelativelybetterbusiness,whileprivateenterprisesseerelativelyworsebusiness(seeTable1).Withregardtoindustry,relativelybetterbusinessperformanceisidentifiedintheproductionandsupplyofelectricity,heatingpower,gasandwater,informationtransmissionsoftwareandinformationtechnologyservices,rentalandleasingandbusinessservices,manufactureofpharmaceuticals,electronicequipment,instruments,,respondentsreporting“good”businessareover25percentagepointsmorethanthosereporting“bad”,chemicalfibers,“good”businessareover20percentagepointsfewerthanthosereporting“bad”,andprofitsarebasicallystableInthesurvey,comparedwith2013,%ofrespondentsreporta“decrease”inthequantityoftheiroutput(services);%notean“unchanged”quantity,%seean“increase”inoutput(services).Accordingtothesurvey,42%ofrespondentssaytheircurrentsales“decrease”;33%report“unchanged”sales,and25%reportan“increase”es“decrease”“increase”,respectively,whichisclearlybetterthantheresultinthefirsthalfof2014butstillworsethantheresultof2013(seeTable2).Table2CurrentOutput(Services),SalesComparedwith2013(%)壹贰正网开户ByGuoJiaofeng,GaoShiji,ZhaoWenzhi,DongDazhongLiJianzhong,Rese,2015Inrecentyears,the“shalerevolution”intheUnitedStateshasresultedinasustainedincreaseofshaleoilandgasproductionandanoversupplyintheinternationaloilmarket,leadingtothesharpdropofoilpriceintheinternationalmarketsincethesecondhalfof2014,lessthan50dollarsperbarrel,,,someinternati,theytrytotackleproblemsbroughtbylowpricesandontheotherhandattachmoreimportancetoreducingcostandincreasingefficiencyofoilexplora,g(2015-2020),issuedbyChongqingMunicipalGovernmentinJanuary2015,thattheannuals,moreinterestisseeninplaceslikeSichuan,Guizhou,Shaanxi,,MinistryofLandandResourcesatestmarketinformation,scientificallyprojectthefutureproductionofshalegasinChinasoastoplaninadvanceandmakecarefulplanningforthedevelopmentofChina’,alongwiththeanalysisandin-depthstudiesofseveralinstitutions,webelievethatshalegasproductioninChinawillexceed5billioncubicmetersin2015andisexpectedtoreach30billioncubicmetersin2020,about15%edonshoreChinafromthePrecambrianperiodtotheCainozoicera,andwidelydistributedinthemainpetroliferousbasinsinthenorthandlargeareasinthesouth,theabundantorgan,ChinaNationalPetroleumCorporation(hereinafterreferredtoas“CNPC”),theStrategicResearchCenterforOilandGasResourcesofMinistryofLandandResources,theChineseAcademyofEngineering,andUSEnergyInformationAdministration(EIA),,andthedistributionofshaleresources,EIAestimatedeighteensetsofshalegasresourcesinsevenmajorpetroliferousbasinsorregionsonshoreChinain2013,,,theStrategicResearchCenterforOilandGasResourcesofMinistryofLandandResourcesorganized27researchinstitutestoassesstheshalegas,,,theChineseAcademyofEngineeringorganizedacademiciansinthefieldofoilandgasandexpertsinthreemajoroilcompaniestoestimatemarineshalegasresourcesinChinawithanalogy,,CNPCassessedshalegasresourcesinthekeyareasbas,,s,,thoughstillintheinitialstage,hasachievedmajorbreakthroughsandtherearepromisingprospectsSincestartingshalegasexplorationin2005,Chinahas,bytheendof2014,investedover20billionyuan,,,Chinahascompletedabunchofpilottestsconcerningshalegasexploration,carriedoutinitialassessmentofthepotentialsofonshoreshalegasresources,,industrialgaswasfoundinFulingJiaoshiba,Changning-WeiyuanandFushun-Yongchuanp,thefirstlarge-scalefieldwiththeproductionofhundredsofbillionscubicmetersinChina,andestablished4demonstrationareasofindustrializationdevelopmentofshalegas,obtainedover500billioncubicmetersofshalegas,(mergingintothenaturalgaspipelinenetworksurroundingtheSichuanBasinafterconnectingwiththeNa’anPipeline).In2015,ng6billioncubicmetersofshalbasicallybeenreadyAtpresent,Chinahasbasicallydevelopedthetechnologiesforselectingandevaluatinggeologicalconditionsoffavorableexplorationzones/strata,andestablishedtechnologicalmethodsandpletinghorizontalwellswithlongintervals(1500-2000meters),suchaswell-boretrajectorycontrol,cementing,drillingfluid,gasreservoirs,suchasfracturingtreatmentdesignofshalegaswells,configurationofslickwaterinvolumefracturing,massivefracturingoperation,,includingclusteringperforation,drillablebridge-plugstagedfracturing,cablepumpingbridgeplug,coiledtubingpumpingbridgeplug,completingshalegaswellgroups,anddrillingandcompletinghorizontalwellsectionswithasinglebitandscrewinonerun①.Besides,wehaveinitiallyformedsupportingequipmentandtechnicalprocessesforshal…Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.①Atpresent,itisfeasibletodeployan,thereare6-10horizontalwells,whicharedrilledandcompletedwithstandardizedequipmentandservicesinthewayoftheproductionorassemblyline.

鸿泰开户推荐信誉:看到这些所谓“正能量”视频

爱博会员鸿泰开户推荐ByChenDaofu,ResearchInstituteofFinanceofDRCResearchReportNo178,2013(Total4427)Inrecentyears,themonetaryfinancehassplitapartfromtherealeconomyinChina,thusdramantothefieldswithlowoutputefficiency,suchasinfrastructure,sourcelonger,fectonthecapitalmarket,whicharerelatedtorelevantsystemsandmechanismsontherealeconomylevel,thedeficiencyofthetransformationandsupervisionofthefinancialsystem,,themonetaryfinanceandtherealeconomyhasbeensplitfartherandfartherapart,resultinginmoreandmoremonetaryfinanceinput,yeteswithlowoutputefficiencysuchasinfrastructure,realestateandovercapacity,,whichisnotmainlyduetotheguidanceofChina,furtherexacerbatingtheseparationofChinaspresentmonetaryfinancefromthecountry,obviousdistortionhasshowuponChinascapitalmarket,sheddinglightonthe"crowding–outeffect".rs,measuredbyactualoutput,theoutputstimulati(whichreferstotheexternalsourcesoffinanceobtainedbynon-financialbusinessesfromdomesticfinancialinstitutionsandmarkets,includingCNYloans,foreigncurrencyloans,entrustloans,discountbankacceptance,stockfinancing,bondfinancingandrelevantitems)andnewlyincreasedmonetarycredithavegrownrapidly,yetindicatorsreflectingeconomicgrowth(especiallydomesticdemand)~2008,,,(whichreferstothetimesofmoneycirculationwithinagivenperiod,generallyoneyear,weighedbythemeanvalueofGDP/currentM2),~2008,,duetotheoverlyeasymonetarypolicycarriedoutin2009,aswellasthedecreaseofthemonetaryoutputefficiency,thevelocityofmoneycirculationdroppedagainin2009and2012,,,thespeedofthemoneyincreasestillsurpassedthenominalspeedofGDPincrease,andtheratiocontinuestodecrease.ByZhangQi,ResearchTeamon"WorldEconomicTrendandLandscape",ResearchDepartmentofForeignEconomicRelationsofDRCResearchReportNo63,2013(Total4312)ationhasfurtherstrengthenediadjustmentofglobalizationins,dependingoninternationalizedproduction,foreigntradeandservices,cross-bordercapitalflowsandtechnicalinnovation,variouscountrieshavemadeintensifiedeffortsinopeningupinternationalmarketsandallocatingglobalresources,whichhavetighteneduptheireecovery,withliberalizationremainingasthemaintrendIn2011,globaltradeandcross-borderinvestmentuppedby44%and27%,respectively,,anindicationoftwo-wayreadjustmentofinvestmentpoliciesbyvariouscountrieshascroppedupafterthefinancialcrisis,andmostcountriescontinuetheiropenp,67newpoliciesaffectingforeigninvestmentwereunveiledglobally,andthepercentageofrestrictivepolicieshasdroppedfrom32%in2010to22%.Intermsofinstitutionalarrangement,thecontinuousandrapidgrowthofregionalandbilateralfreetradearrangement(FTA),thenumberofregionaltradeagreement(RTA)reportedtoGATTorWTOhadreachedatotalof546,,aturnaroundtoimportanteconomiesandaninstitutionalarrangementforestablishingtrans-regionalfreetrternationalizedproductionacrosstheglobeInrecentyears,tra,internationalizedproductionbytranssannualsurvey,in2011theoverseassalesrevenuesandstaffincreaseof100largesttransnationalcorporationsworldwideallgr(TNI)formeasuringinternationalizationlevel,amongnon-bankingenterprisesglobally,%%veincreasedevidentlyThepost-crisisperiodtendstogive,variouscountrieshaveincreasedRDinvestmentsandroleindustrializationoftechnicalinnovationhasalongwaytogo,breakthroughshavebeenconstantlyachievedinthenewroundoftechnicalinnovationscharacterizedbythein-depthdevelopmentandapplicationofinformationtechnologiesandbythedevelopmentofnewmaterialsandnewenergyresources,whichwillinjectnewvitalitiesforglobaleconomicgrowthandhelpsvariouscountriestoacc,issueslikeclimatechange,environmentalprotection,resourcescarcity,foodsafety,priceperformanceofbulkcommoditiesandpopulationaging,haveincreasedevidentlyacrosstheglobe,becomingcriticalfactorsaffectingthesustainableeconomicdevelopmentofvariouscountries,makingthemtobeclearlyawarethatonlybycementinginternationalcooperaemergingeconomieshavebecomeanewmotiveforceforglobalizationOveralongperiodoftime,developedcount,theeconomicgrowthofemergingeconomieswerenotablyhigherthandevelopedeconomies,overalleconomicdevelopmentassumesanacceleratedupwardtrend,andtherobustdevelopmentoftheemergingeconomiesandtheweakgrowthofdevelopedcountriesinthecourseofeconomicrecoveryhaveevidentl,between2000~2011,thedevelopedcountriesrepresentedbyG7sawtheireconomicaggregatedropfrom66%to48%,whileE24sawtheirsrisefrom16%to29%.Intermsoftradeandinvestmentvolumes,theinternationalstandingofemesimportstotheglobaltotaldroppedfromnearly50%to37%,whilethatofE24sescalatedfrom16%to28%duringthesameperiod;in2011,theratiooffinish%;in2012,,yetdevelopingcountriesattracted680billionUSdollarsofFDI,exceedingthatofdevelopedcountriesforthefirsttime,accountingforarecordhighof23%and37%respectively,developedcountrieshavealwaysplayedasthepropeller,,emergingeconomiesanddevelopingcountries,throughforeigntradeandtheattractionofinvestments,havegraduallygotintegratedwithinternationalproductionsystemandglobaldivisionoflabor,,during2008~2011nearly90%,urbanizationanddeepeningglobaldivisionofvaluechains,emergingeconomieswillshowhugegrowthpotentialsandmammothdemandforglobalresources,technologies,overseasmarketsandcross-borderinvestments,,withtheimprovementofthelivingstandards,peopleofmiddleclasswillshowupinbignumbersandwillbecomeanewspotlightforfutureconsumptiongrowth,:ADifferentWorld,aresearchreportpublishedbyUSNationalIntelligenceCouncilinDecember2012,during2000~2020,ChinasGDPgrowthwillmakeup55%oftheworldtotaland,by2030IndiaandChinawillconstitutethemajormiddle-classconsumptionshareintheworld,largerthanthetotaloftheUnitedStatesandEUputtogether.

ByZhangChenghui,Director-GeneraloftheResearchInstituteforFinance,DevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncil(DRC)ResearchReportNo106,2013(Total4355)ftheFinancialIndustryIfcategorizingisdoneintermsoftheintensityoffactorinputsandtheindustriesareclassifiedaslabor-intensive,capital-intensive,technology-intensiveandknowledge-intensive,thenthefinancialindustryisdeemedasa"contract-intensiveindustry".Asaspecialservicesector,thefinancialindustryrelatestocontractualarrangementsbeingfarmoreintensiveandcomplicatedthanotherindustriesinproductionandtradingoffinancialproducts,whicharemorevulnerableto"informationasymmetry"and"ethicalrisks".Hence,ifsoundenvironmentsforensuringthecontractimplementationarefewandfarbetween,riskswillincreasesubstantially,thusaffectinginvestorsinformationandtheirtradingaspirations,,,bankruptcylawsofIndonesia,SouthKorea,ThailandandRussiawerenotallcarriedoutstrictly,leavingcreditorsinterestsunprotected,andmalfunctioningenterprisesorfinancialptionoftheongoinginternationalfinancialcrisis:ononehand,withtheexplosivedevelopmentofthefinancialderivatives,loopholesappearagainstconsumerprotection;ontheotherhand,theissueof"toobigtofail(TBTF)"isquitetangibleindevelopedcountries,cialinfrastructureofacountryshouldincludelegalenvironment,dlegalenvironmentcanrelationsamongvariousstakeholder,namely,perfectlegalsystem,effectiveexecutivesystemandreason,thelegalsystemshouldbewellestablis,thelegalsystemshouldalsokeeppacewiththetimesandbeadjustedint,afair,justandefficientfinancialdisputehearingandarbitrationmechanismshouldbesetupunancialdisput,theviewpointofestablishingani,pilotcourtshavebeensetupinShanghai,Henan,,theInternationalFinancialArbitrationCourtbegantooperateinHague,specializinginofferingarbitrationservicesfordisputesarisin,financialsupervis,hiddenillegalconductsanddifficultyinobtainingevidencethroughinvestigationfeaturefinancialtransactions,plusfinancialinvestorsbeingrelativelyscattered,thenumberofsmallandmediuminvestorsbeinghugeandtheclassactionmechanismbeingimperfectandincompleteinChina,therefore,itisnecessarytoprovidefinancialsupervisionandregulationdepartmentswithnecessaryrightstoenforcethelaws,suchasthequeryrights,,theserightsmustbemoderateandreasonable,sinformationasymmetryandconstructthelong-actingconstraintandincentivemechanismforborrowersForeignexperienceshowsthatinformationdisclosureislessdemandedwhenstockholdersconcentraterelativelyand,conversely,:Asmallnumberofbigshareholdersarefarmorecapableofacquiringand,accurateandtimelyinformationdisclosureisneededtohelpt,indirect-financing-orientedeconomieshavelesserpressureofdisclosinginformationtothepublic,while,Chinaismakingeffortstoboostthetransformationfromtheinvestment-drivenandscale-centeredextensiveeconomicgrowthpatterntotheinnovation-dr,callsforthemajoreffortstodevelopingserviceindustriesandsmallandmedium-sizedenterprises,,;(includingpubliccompanies,yettheimplementationstandardisdifferentfromthatoflistedcompanies),,listedandunlistedpubliccompaniestaketheinitiativeindisclosingnecessaryfinancialandbusinessope,thepassivedisclosuresystemiscarriedout,namely,informationiscollectedandcompiledunderthecreditreferencesystem,andinformationoninquirysubjectsare,theobjectiveandspecializedthird-partycommentsarevitalimportancetothesystem.ByShiGuangMaMingjie,ResearchTeamon"MiddleandLongTermGrowth"ofDRCResearchReport,,2014(Total4574)Sincethestartofreformandopening-up,thefocusoftheinnovationfactorslayouthasshiftedfromChina,,intheformofinnovationmaps,analyzedthetrendofchangesininnovationfactorsinter-provincial1distributionoverthepasttwodecades;sequencedtheprovincesbytheconcentrationlevelofinnovationfactors;anddiscussedtheintRegionalDistributionInthispaper,thechangesininnovationfactorsinter-provincialdistributioninthepasttwodecadeswereevaluatedfromthreeaspects:innovationinvestment,researchers,universities/colleges,andresearchinstitutes;innovationoutputwasevaluatedbyinventionpatentgrants;industrializationofinnovationachievementsincludedsuchindicatorsasthevolumeoftechnologytrade,thenumberofhi-techenterprises,,mostoftheinno,someregionshaveconcentratedmuchmoreinnovationfactorsoveracomparativelylongperiodthanolyseenfromfivetimenodesinthepasttwodecades,namely1991,1996,2001,2006,sttwodecadesandreachedRMB1trillionyuanin2012,,whileRDinvestm,,Shandong,andZhejiangused991-2010;ShaanxiandHubeiprovincesrosesharplyin2001and2006,butweresurpassedagainbycoastalprovincesin2010;SichuanandLiaoningprovinces,asoldindustrialbaseswithabundanttechnologicalresources,onceledthecountryin1991,nthepast20years,,theYangtzeRiverDeltaandGuangdonghavebecomethemainconcentrationareasofRDpersonnel:Guangdong,Jiangsu,andZhejiangboastedthemostRDpersonnelin2010,with340thousand,320thousand,and220thousandFTEs(full-timeequivalent),Beijing,Shanghai,Jiangsu,andShandonghaveheldtheleadin,northeast,centralandwe,Liaoning,ShaanxiandHubei,inparticular,usedtohaveacomparativeadvantageinscientifictalentsinthe1990s,esintoenterprisessince1999,thenumberofinstitutesreducedfrom5,463in1991to3,cades:mostofthemarelocatedintheeasternregion(Beijing,Shandong,Guangdong,andJiangsu)andthenortheasternregion(HeilongjiangandLiaoning);afewinthecentralandwesternregions(Sichuan,Hubei,andShanxi),thenumberofuniversitiesandcollegeshasincreasedatarapidpace:806in1991and3,,mostoftheuniversitiesandcollegesareintheeasternregion(Beijing,Shanghai,Jiangsu,andShandong)andthecentralregion(Hunan,Hubei,andAnhui).Secondly,thenumberofuniversitiesandcollegesinwesternprovinceslikeSichuanhasdroppedveryfast:in1991,Sichuanheldthenational2ndplaceintermsofthenumberofhighereducationinstitutions,,thenumberofuniversitiesandcollegesinAnhui,Guangdong,,rankingfirstinthecountry;inGuangdongthenumberincreasedfrom34in1991to173in2010;n4timeswhereasfrom2001-2010thenumbersawanincreaseof14times,mostofwhichwascontributedbyGuangdong,Beijing,Jiangsu,Shanghai,andZhejiang,the“newfiveprovinces”.In1991,Beijing,Liaoning,Shanghai,Sichuan,andShandongheldhalfofChina,southeastcoast,theabove-mentionedfiveprovincestookupa57-percentshareofChina,thecentralandwesternregionsonlywitnessedaslightincrea,,thecountry(atcurrentprice),,technologytradeindevelopedprovincesisincreasinglyactive,,Jiangsu,Guangdong,,Beijingspositiona%ofthenationaltotalin2010,comparedwithamere24%,,LiaoningandSichuansufferedadramaticdeclineinthisregard:theirtechnologytradevolumeaccountedfor18%%,Sichuanlostitsprideasasub-centerofdomestictechnologytrade.

鸿泰开户推荐平台:高清空军战机起飞大图

ByZhaoJinpingZhaoFujun,ResearchTeamon"AnalysisonForeignTradeandEconomicSituation",ResearchDepartmentofForeignEconomicRelationsofDRCResearchReportNo157,2013(Total4406)Aquestionnaire-basedsurveywasconductedonpresentexportgrowthrelatedto225foreig,exportsarecurrentlyexperiencingaslowgrowthonthewhole,smallenterprisesareencounteringamoresevereexportpredicamentthanlargeandmedium-sizedenterprises,theexportcostforhalfoftheenterprisescontinuestoincrease,exportpriceshavebeenincreasedatlarge,mostexportenterprisesarebeingembarrassedatalowexportprofitability,ordersfortheenterpriseshaveincreased,theexportsituationoverthewholeyearislikelytobeinlinewiththepreviousyearortoimproveslightly,andenterpriseshavegreatexpectationsoverthegovernmentsadoptionofproactivemeasurestoeffectivelyholdinchec,100weretelep,%intermsoftype;smalle%intermsofsize;%intermsofregion;thenumberofenterprisesinGuangdongrankedsecond,%;andintermsofexportmarket,%,%,andthenumberofenterprisesexportinggoodstoJapan,HongKong,%,%%,thenumberofenterprisesengagedinthebusinessoftextileandgarments,food,chemicalsandpharmaceuticals,%,%,8%,%%arSurveyresultspresentthefollowingfeaturesintermsoftheexeviousyearSurveyfindingsshowthatfromJanuarytoMaythisyearthenumberofenterprisesbreakingeve%andthenumberofenterpriseswithincreasedexportvolume(includingthosewithagrowthrateof5%~20%orabove)%.Onthewhole,thefirsthalfoftheyearsawasimilarorsl,thesurveyresultsindi%,%duringthesameperiodof2012;%,%,thenumberofenterprisesthatmaintainedbasicallythesameexportvolumeasin2012increased,,thesurveyresultsalsoindicatethatsincethisyearChinasexportgrowthhasremainedpregnantwithgrimprospectsonthewhole,showingsomedifferencefromtheexpectedgrowthtargetof8%.Table1ExportGrowthofEnterprisesSurveyed

澳门会下载安卓手机版ByLvWei,DepartmentofTechno-EconomicResearchofDRCResearchReportNo136,2014(Total4635)The18thCPCNaation-drivendevelopmentisthetransformationofdevelopmentmotivationinnatureanditurgentlyrequir"perfectingthemarket-orientedmechanismfortechnicalinnovationandgivingplaytotheguidingroleofmarketinRDdirection,routeselection,elementpriceandallocationofvariousinnovationelements".Inthemarketeconomy,thegovernmentcanworkonmarketmechanesourcestoInnovationHerearesomecasesabouthowthegovernmentofmarketeconomycountriesinfluencingthemarketmechani:RelaxingpricecontrolintargetedfieldsandreducingandexemptingtaxestopromotetechnicalprogressinshalegasexplorationanddevelopmentintheUnitedStatesAttheendoftheworldoilcrisisinthe1970s,theUSgovernmentkeptthedomesticnaturalgaspriceundercontrol,cripplingtheinitiativeofnaturalglsupplyshortage,theUSgovernmentpromulgatedseverallaw,itpromulgatedtheNaturalGasPolicyActin1978toabolishthecontrolovernaturalgaspricea,itenactedtheCrudeOilWindfallProfitTaxActtoinitiatelong-termtaxreductionandexemptionforunconventionalenergydevelopmentandtheunconventionalgasdrilledfrom1980to19,thegovernmentexpandedthescopeoftaxreductionandexemptionforunconventionalenergythroughseveralroundsofralgas,boostedtheinitiativeofUSenergyenterprisesindevelopingthegas,droveenterprisestomakecontinuousinno,break,shalegasoutputoftheUnitedStateshaskeptrisingbyover60%,includingsomemagnatessuchasShellandExxonM:Adoptingpoliciesincludingfeed-intariffanddegressivefixedfeed-intarifftoencouragePVpowergenerationandpromotePVtechnologicaladvancementinGermanyIn1991,GermanypassedtheElectricityFeedLaw,clarifyingthethreeprinciplesforPVpowergeneration:compulsivegridconnection,thatpowergrid%yearbyyearandthedifferencebetweensolarfeed-int/kWh,generationwithrenewableenergy,butalsoensuredstableandreasonableinvestment,respectively,theGer,increasedtheannualtariffdecreasemargin,adopteddifferenttariffsfordifferentformsofsolarpowe,/,butalsopromotedmanufacturersofPVpowergenerati/kWin2006toUSD1/:RegularlyadjustingemissionstandardstopromoteprogressinenergyconservationandemissionreductionoftheautoindustryinEuropeEUcountriesadoptthesameexhaustemissionstandardforcarsⅠemissionstandards,EUROⅡ,EUROⅢ,EUROⅣandEUROⅤwereputintoeffectin1992,1996,2000,,EUpassedanotheract,requiringaveragecarbondioxideemissionfor95%ofthenewcarssoldwithinEUbelow95g/,autocompanieshavetomakemassiveinvestmentintechnologicalprogress,reducepollutionandcostbyimprovingcarstructurean:FormulatingstandardsandtimetablefortechnicalupgradingtopromotetechnologyapplicationandindustrialdevelopmentofdigitaltelevisionintheUnitedStatesTopromotethedevelopmentoftheinformationsuperhighway,in1992,theClintonadministrationregardeddigitaltelevisionwithrosymarke,itpassedtheTelecommunicationsActof1996andidentifiedtheti(FCC)wasresponsibleformakingrelatedplans,publicizingthetimetableofreplacingtheanalogTVsystemwithdigitalTVsystem,fundingplansandprojectsonchannelinstallationandallocation,formulatingpreferentialpoliciesforTVstations,manufacturersandusers,offeringrelatedpartiesaperiodoftimetoprepareforthetechnical,thefederalgovernmentformulatedsupportivepoliciessuchasrelaxingaccesscontrol,grantingfinancialsupportanddevelopingtheTVcontentindustrytorestrictmonopoly,(DTV)wasfirstusedinNovember1998andbyJune2009,theUnitedStateshadclosedtransmissionofallanalogtsnottruethatthegovernmentcandonothingtoallowthemarkettoplayitsroleinallocationofinnovationresources;instead,itcanguideallocationbyadjustin,inenvironmentalprotection,energysafetyandsomeotherfieldsunderstrongexternalinfluence,themarketmechanismwonlizetheexternalcostandbenefitbeforethemarketplaysitsguidingroletochannelmoresocialsourcestowardsinnovation.ByLiuShijinProposingtogiveplaytothedecisiveroleofthemarketinresourceallocationisanewbreakthroughmadebytheCPCinitsunderstandingofthelawofbuildingsocialismwithChinesecharacteristics,hthetimes,whichalsoshowstheresolutionofthenewcentralleadershiptoadva"invisiblehand"andthe"visiblehand"restsonthoroughlyimplementingtothelettertheguidelineproposedattheThirdPlenarySessionofthe18thCPCCentralCommitteedKeepingupwiththeTimes,aftertheCPCsetthegoaltobuildasocialistmarketeconomicsystemandproposedtogiveplaytothefundamentalroleofthemarketinallocatingresourcesatits14thCPCNationalCongress,themarket-orientedreforminChinahaswitnesse,,themarketisnotopenwideenough,,theprivately-runenterprisescouldhardlygetequalmarketopportunities;statecapitaloutsidetheindustrycanhardlyentertherailwayoroilsectorseither;andsomefieldsareopentoforeign-investedenterprises,,thereformofrurallandsystemisnotyetinplace;state-ownedandcollective-ownedlandsenjoydifferentrights;thegovernmen,theyhaveledtolandpricedistortionsandinefficientallocationoflandresources,,whic,theChineseeconomyhasstartedtoslowdow,theeconomicdevelopmentwouldshiftfromthepastinvestmentandindustry-basedonewithmoreoverseasdemandstothepre,itwillshiftfromrelyingmoreonfactorinputandimitationofforeigntechnologiestorel,thegovernmentenjoyscertainadvantagesintheconstructionofinfrastructure,butitsadvantage,thedevelopmentofindustryismainlyrelatedtothecontactsbetweenmenandmachines,butwhenitcomestodevelopingtheservicesector,itismainlyrelatedtopeopletopeoplecontactsandthatneedstomobilizegreaterenthusiasmandcreativityoftheenterprises,especiallysmallenterprisesandtheindividuals,edeepeningofreformandtheformulationofaseriesofinstitutio,reformshavebeencarriedoutalongwithopeningup;,,thesecompetitionsarerelatedtoproducts,technologiesandindustries,,Chinaiseagerforreforms,,Chinashouldnotonlycareaboutitsownreforms,butalsoobservehowothercountriesmakereformssoastoenhanceitsin,theUS-ledTrans-PacificPartnership(TPP)andTrans-AtlanticTradeandInvestmentPartnership(TTIP)programshavetriedtodevelopnewtradeandinvestmentru,Chinadoesnothavetoandcannotshyawayfromsuchchallenges,butshouldwillinglytur,butalso,inlightoftheexternalchanges,seizeastratOtherInsteadofTradingoffandTakingTurnswithEachOtherProposingtogiveplaytothedecisiveroleofthemarketinresourceallocationisanewbreakthroughmadebytheCPCinitsunderstandingofthelawofbuildingsocialismwithChinesecharacteristics,withmarketrules;providetherightsignalsandincentivesofresourceallocationwithmarketprices;andpromotethesurvivalofthefittest,,highlightingthed,,,,whoissuperior,thegovernmentorthemarket

鸿泰开户推荐,2015Itisimportanttofirmlyestablishandvigorouslyimplementthedevelopmentphilosophyofinnovation,coordination,greengrowth,opennessandfruit-sharing,acceleratetransformingagriculturaldevelopmentmode,andfosternewdrivingforcesforagriculturalgrowth.“China’sFoodSecurityFoodSafetyStrategySummit”attentionfromallwalksoflife,includingtheinternationalcommunity,andplayedasignificantroleindesigningChina’rtyofChina,heldinOctober2015,reviewedandapprovedRecommendationsforthe13thFive-YearPlanforEconomicandSocialDevelopment,theblueprintforChina’sdevelopmentinthenextfiveyears,particularlyfocusingonimprovingthequalityandefficiencyofdevelopment,andacceleratingtheestablishmentofthesystem,mechanism,andeconomicgrowthmodelthatguidethenewnormalinChina’,withthethemeof“AgriculturalDevelopmentModeTransformationGrowthEngineSuccession”,reflectstheguidelinesofChina’snewdevelopmentphilosophyduringthe13thFive-YearPlanPeriod,andconcentratesonthelinchpinsinChina’odsupplyinChina,whichhascha,China’spercapitashareofgrainis450kg,,storage,processing,anddistribution,,solidfoundationforthecountrytodealwiththechallengesbroughtbyreformandopening-up,andmaintainsoundeconomicandsocialorder,butalsohasgreatlycontributedtopovertyandhungeralleviat,Chinahasmadearemarkableachievementbecauseitsupportsonefifthoftheworld’spopulationwithonefourthoftheworld’,oodsafetyisweak,,theactualamountofwaterusedinmajorgra,,suggestingChina’,China’’saveragelevel,,landandsoilinChinahavebeenoverlydeveloped,ndenvironment,thebasistosustainagricultureanditsdevelopmentwillbedestroyed,an,thestatehasraisedthefloorpurchasepriceofriceandwheat,aswellasthetemporarypurchaseandstoragepriceofmaize,effectivelypromotinggrainoutputandfarmers’,nonetheless,,thebiggestconflictinthefoodmarketisthatdomes,pricesofprimaryagricuubstitutes,whiledomesticfoodwithahighcostispurchasedbythegovernmentwiththeaimtosupportfoodprice,resultinginthegrowthoffoodproduction,’sagriculturalpoliciestoperfectthepricingmechanismofagriculturalproducts,improvethesystemoffoodpurchaseandstorage,,andtheasymmetricinformationamongproducers,dealers,consumersandregulators,,withover200millionfarminghouseholds,morethan400,000foodfirms,andsome3millionfooddealers,,depressedconsumermarket,andcontinuousincreaseofproductioncost,somefoodenterprises,inordertomaintaintheirprofitlevel,havereducedtheireffortsinqualitycontrol,’sImportedFood2010-2014issuedbyGeneralAdministrationofQualitySupervision,InspectionandQuarantineofthePeople’sRepublicofChina,thenumberofunqualifiedfoodimportedfrom112countriesandregionsduringthatperiodwas1692,1857,2499,2164and3505batchesrespectivelyeveryyearduringthatperiod,offoodsecurityandfoodsafety,wemustactivelytakemeasures,firmlyestablishandvigorouslyimplementthedevelopmentphilosophyofinnovation,coordination,greengrowth,opennessandfruit-sharing,acceleratetransformingagriculturaldevelopmentmode,’smore,itisofsignificancetofocusonbothfoodquantityandquality,boththecurrentandlong-rundevelopment,bothdomesticmarketandinternationalmarketandresources,soastocomprehensivelyimprovefoodsecurityandfoodsafety.ByZhangChenghui,,2015SincetheThirdPlenarySessionofthe18thCentralCommitteeoftheCommunistPartyofChina,manyreformmeasureshavebeenimplementedinChina’sfinancialsectorsuchasthemarketizationofinterestrate,wideropening-up,andstreamliningadministrationanddelegatingmorepowertolower-levelgovernmentsviaShanghaiFreeTradeZone(China),theto-be-adoptedIPOregistrationsystem,issuingthereformplanforpolicy-basedbanks,moreeffortsi,,notmuchsignificanteffecthasshown,andtheimprovementoffinancialser’’smanagementoverfinancialsectorThisquestionisthecoreofallinstitutionalproblems,theessenceofwhichishowtoadjusttherelationshipbetweengovernmentandfinancialmarket,and,asoneplayerinthefinancialmarket,governmentcannotd,’,throughitscontroloverfinancialinstitutionsandfinancialmarket(equity-holdingornon-equity-holding),governmentexercisesitsimpactontheallocationandreallocationoffinancialresourcesso,throughitsimpactonfinancialtransactions(suchasimplicitguaranteesforfinancialgoodsandassistancetoavoidbusinessfailureforfinancialinstitutions),governmentmaintainsfinancialeveneconomicandsocialstability,reducesfiscalexpenditureonmitigatingrisks,espe,throughdeepinvolvementinfinancialactivities,administr,centralandlocalgovernmentsareusuallyunwillin“letthemarketplayadecisiveroleinresourceallocationandletthegovernmentplayitsduerole”.Government’sinterventioontrol,governmentcontinuestoholdthemajorityofthesharesinfinancialinstitutionsanddirectlyappointhigh-levelmanagement;Throughadministrativepower,governmentordersfinancialinstitutionsdevotetheirsupportmainlytogovernmentprojects.(’sinterventionevenintensifieswheneconomicgrowthslowsdown,andlocalgovernmentshavegrowingpressuretomaintaineconomicgrowth.)Administrativedepartmentsoffinancialsectordirectlyestablishandregulatefinancialmarket,evensettingup“onespecializedmarketforoneproduct”.,governmentofficialsaremorewillingtointervenedirectlyinfinancialinstitutionswithadministrativecontrolsbecauseofthesimplicity,directnessandquickeffectratherthanindirectlyguideandaffectresourceallocationthroughmarketmechanism,,somefinancialadministrativedepartmentsdon’,theyeventendtostrs,financialreformhasencounteredso“makingbreakthroughsfromoutside”.Forexample,effortsaremadetopromotetheestablishmentofprivatebanks,tobemoretoleranttowardsthedevelopmentofInternetfinance,andtovigorouslydevelopallsortsoffinancialinstitutionsincludingsmallloancompanies,financingguaranteecompanies,financialleasingcompanies,“makingbreakthroughsfromoutside”onboostingthedevelopmentofrealeconomy,,theemerginginstituti,evenif100privatebanksaresetup,eachwithacapitalof2billionyuan,theirtotalassetsarenomorethan2to3trillionyuan,whilethetotalassetsofthefinancialinstitutio,itiscompetitivenessandriskcontrolabilityofthemajorfinancinginstitutionsthatplayakeyroleindeterminingserviceefficiencyandriskdegreeofChina’,basedontheexperienceofTaiwan,rapidlyremovingthethresholdofmarketaccesstoprivatebanksleadstoalargenumberofbanks,excessivecompetition,,financialregulatoryauthoritiesinTaiwanwereund,financialregulatorypressureoflocalgovernment,,theinconsistencyofmarketrulesandregulatoryef,majorfinancialinstitutionshavetheproblemsofnon-standardizedcorporategovernance,lackofheadquarterscontrolandriskcontrolability,,thereisawidespreadphenomenonth,itisestimatedthatgovernmenthasdirectorindirectshareholdingofabout60%-70%,alongwithacomplexandmulti-layerprinciple-agentsystemofstate-ownedassets,resultinthedifficultyfortheprinciplestoexerciseeffectiveregulationandsupervisionoveragents,lossininformationtransmissionacrosslayers,,,directorsandsupervisorsareusuallyselectedwi-,theboardsevenb,,thechairmanisnotonlythehighestrepresentativeofstockholders’interestsinthecompany,rsofdecision-makingpowerortheadministrativeauthoritytoappointandremovemanagers,inordertoavoidbeingremovedfrompracticalcontrol,“chairmanfirst,presidentsecond”,which,toalargeextent,,excessivenon-marketfactorsexercisestrongimpactontheselectionofcompany’,governmentusuallyappointsthetopmanagementoftheheadquartersoffinancialinstitutions.(InsomefinancialinstitutionscontrolledbyprivatecapitalliketheRuralCreditUnion,itsmanagementattheprovinciallevelisalsoappointedbythegovernment.)Inmostcases,,theconceptof“topmanagement”paniesareappointedwiththeapprovalofrelevantdepartmentsortheiroffices,whichgreatlyconstraiive-orientedbasedonbusinessactivitiesandmarketevaluation,butisincreasinglyinfluencedbyandsubjecttogovernmentadministration.Source:,CBRCsuccessivelypromulgatedsupervisionpoliciesonbank-trustcooperation,mainlyincluding:threeprinciplesoncreditassetstransfer,,completenessandcleantransfer;adjustmentofthesupervisionindicatorsforboththetransferorandthetransferee;wealthmanagementfundsshouldnotbedirectlyusedtopurchasecreditassets;commercialbanksshouldtransferoff-balancesheetbank-trustwealthmanagementcooperationbusinessintobalancesheetbeforetheendof2011,setasideloanlossprovisionsatarateof150%andincludesuchassetsinriskweightedassets;balanceofbank-trustcooperationloansshouldbereducedproportionallyby25%quarterbyquarter;%forthebank-trustcoop,theregulatoralsopromulgatedsupervisionpolicies(Table2)pertainingtotheexplicitorimplicitrepurchaseclause,truthfulnessoftradebackgroundofbillbusinessand012bytheRegulatoronWealthManagementBusinessofBanks

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